Unlike many existing books on toxicology that cover either toxicity of a particular substance or toxicity of chemicals on particular organ systems, Toxicological Risk Assessment of Chemicals: A Practical Guide lays out the principle activities of conducting a toxicological risk assessment, including international approaches and methods for the risk assessment of chemical substances.

It illustrates each step in the process: hazard identification, a dose response assessment, and exposure assessment. The book also summarizes the basic concepts of interaction of chemicals in mixtures and discusses various approaches to testing such mixtures.


- Addresses standards from all international regulatory agencies

- Presents the steps in risk assessment, including hazard identification, exposure assessment, and risk characterization

- Covers the assessment of multiple chemical exposures or chemical mixtures

- Contains data from both human and animal studies Explains the linearized multi-stage mathematical model widely used by the US EPA for characterizing

Publisher: Informa Healthcare

For more information please click on:


Title Index:

- Introduction.

- Data for Hazard Identification and Characterisation.

- Hazard Assessment.

- Exposure Assessment.

- Risk Characterisation.

- Combination Effects.


Hard Copy : EUR 109

Ordering - Three easy ways to place your order:

1] Order online at http://www.researchandmarkets.com/product/d87ef2/toxicological_risk_assessment_of_chemicals_a

Zadnjič posodobljeno (Sreda, 15 December 2010 18:57)


The comprehensive report itemizes a number of pathways through which the chemicals in tobacco smoke damage the human body and lead to disease and death.

There are more than 7,000 chemicals in tobacco smoke, which the HHS describes as a "deadly" mixture containing hundreds of toxic substances, and at least 70 known to cause cancer.


Published online 6 December 2010 | Nature | doi:10.1038/468742a

Basel Declaration defends animal research

Animal activists last summer set fire to the alpine holiday home of Daniel Vasella, then chief executive of pharmaceutical giant Novartis of Basel, Switzerland, in one of relatively few violent attacks on scientists working with animals in German-speaking countries.

But in the past few years these scientists have been feeling the pressure in other ways — from animal activists who have attempted to publicly shame them or have sent threatening e-mails, and from legislation that increasingly restricts the use of animals in basic research.

Now, in a bid to reverse that trend, more than 50 top scientists working in Germany and Switzerland have launched an education offensive. Meeting in Basel on 29 November, they drafted and signed a declaration pledging to be more open about their research, and to engage in more public dialogue.

"The public tends to have false perceptions about animal research, such as thinking they can always be replaced by alternative methods like cell culture," says Stefan Treue, director of the German Primate Center in Göttingen. Treue co-chaired the Basel meeting, called 'Research at a Crossroads', with molecular biologist Michael Hengartner, dean of science at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Outreach activities, such as inviting the public into universities to talk to scientists about animal research, "will be helpful to both sides".

Read more at http://www.nature.com/news/2010/101206/full/468742a.html?s=news_rss



New plans for a universal qualification for health + safety professionals across Europe was revealed in Brussels today. 56 Single qualification - IOSH



In the night between 2nd and 3rd December 1984, one of world greatest chemical disasters took place in Indian city Bhopal. Official reason for the accident was sabotage. The official immediate death toll was 2,259, in overall death toll determined by the activist was around 22000 people. Apart from methyl isocyanate (MIC), the gas may have contained phosgene, hydrogen cyanide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen chloride, oxides of nitrogen, and other toxicants.

The initial effects of exposure were coughing, vomiting, severe eye irritation and a feeling of suffocation. The gas cloud was composed mainly of materials denser than the surrounding air, therefore it stayed close to the ground. Owing to their height, children and other people of shorter stature inhaled higher concentrations. The causes of deaths were choking, circulatory collapse and pulmonary oedema. Findings during autopsies revealed changes in the lungs, cerebral edema, necrosis of the kidneys, liver degeneration and necrotising enteritis. The stillbirth rate increased by up to 300% and neonatal mortality rate by 200%. Irreversible effects in humans were eye damage, respiratory effects, neurological and immune disorders, as well as malformations of children born to the mothers exposed during pregnancy.

In toxicological studies, effects of exposure to MIC are similar to the effects seen in humans.

Effects of inhaled MIC were acute necrotizing bronchitis of the entire respiratory tract accompanied by varying degrees of confluent congestion, hyperemia and interstitial and intra-alveolar edema, however no carcinogenicity was observed in long term studies. In short term studies effects in animals were liver, kidney and testes toxicity. In the inhalation study clinical signs were lacrimation, respiratory difficulty (e.g., dyspnea, mouth breathing), perinasal and perioral wetness, decreased activity, and hypothermia. The overall spectrum of the histopathological lesions is quite comparable to those observed in the lungs of Bhopal victims during the acute phase. In the mutagenicity and genotoxicity studies, several in vitro tests gave negative results, however in vitro test on mouse lymphoma cells, as well as in vivo test in mice showed a positive result. Therefore MIC should be regarded as genotoxic substance. A cotton plug saturated with MIC to ear of rabbit for 30 min caused erythema and edema spread to entire ear. Finally, necrosis and perforation developed. A few drops sprinkled on the ear resulted in corrosion of tissue.

In the occupational health setting, the recommended exposure limit for inhalation and skin exposure for 8h working day is 0.05 mg/m3.

Zadnjič posodobljeno (Nedelja, 05 December 2010 18:59)

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